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Non-stationary noise responses of some fully differential on-chip readout circuits suitable for CMOS image sensors

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4 Author(s)
Degerli, Y. ; CIMI Res. Group, Ecole Nat. Superieure de l''Aeronautique et de l''Espace, Toulouse, France ; Lavernhe, F. ; Magnan, P. ; Farre, J.

CMOS active-pixel image sensors, as well as charge-coupled devices, generate both white noise and 1/fα-noise over several decades depending on biasing current, operating temperature, and the characteristics of the process used, limiting the detector dynamic range. Three readout circuits, based on a fully differential cascode operational transconductance amplifier, designed and realized on a standard CMOS 0.7-μm single polysilicon/double metal process, are proposed for CMOS active-pixel imagers. The first is an uncompensated switched capacitor (SC) voltage amplifier; the second, an offset compensated SC amplifier; and the third, a commutable bandpass filter. All three amplifiers allow correlated double sampling and double delta sampling for pixel and column fixed pattern noise suppression, respectively. The amplifiers offer up to 10-Mpixels/s readout rates. A detailed theoretical analysis of the amplifiers response to white noise and low-frequency excess noise is given, considering nonstationary nature of the output signals. An original method based on diffusive Markovian representation of 1/fα-noise is used. The theoretical results are compared with experimental data

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Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:46 ,  Issue: 12 )