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Indexing without invariants in 3D object recognition

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2 Author(s)
Beis, J.S. ; KnowledgeTech. Consulting Inc., Vancouver, BC, Canada ; Lowe, D.G.

We present a method of indexing 3D objects from single 2D images. The method does not rely on invariant features. This allows a richer set of shape information to be used in the recognition process. We also suggest the kd-tree as an alternative indexing data structure to the standard hash table. This makes hypothesis recovery more efficient in high-dimensional spaces, which are necessary to achieve specificity in large model databases. Search efficiency is maintained in these regimes by the use of best-bin first search. Neighbors recovered from the index are used to generate probability estimates, local within the feature space, which are then used to rank hypotheses for verification. On average, the ranking process greatly reduces the number of verifications required. Our approach is general in that it can be applied to any real-valued feature vector. In addition, it is straightforward to add to our index information from real images regarding the true probability distributions of the feature groupings used for indexing

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Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:21 ,  Issue: 10 )