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A 450-MHz RISC microprocessor with enhanced instruction set and copper interconnect

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14 Author(s)

This superscalar microprocessor is the first implementation of a 32-bit RISC architecture specification incorporating a single-instruction, multiple-data vector processing engine. Two instructions per cycle plus a branch can be dispatched to two of seven execution units in this microarchitecture designed for high execution performance, high memory bandwidth, and low power for desktop, embedded, and multiprocessing systems. The processor features an enhanced memory subsystem, 128-bit internal data buses for improved bandwidth, and 32-KB eight-way instruction/data caches. The integrated L2 tag and cache controller with a dedicated L2 bus interface supports L2 cache sizes of 512 KB, 1 MB, or 2 MB with two-way set associativity. At 450 MHz, and with a 2-MB L2 cache, this processor is estimated to have a floating-point and integer performance metric of 20 while dissipating only 7 W at 1.8 V. The 10.5 million transistor, 83-mm2 die is fabricated in a 1.8-V, 0.20-μm CMOS process with six layers of copper interconnect

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Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of  (Volume:34 ,  Issue: 11 )