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Fly-by-wire flight control has enabled a watershed improvement in aircraft performance and control to be achieved. This article covers first the basic concepts of FBW control and key elements such as electrical data transmission, failure survival actuation systems, aircraft motion sensors, and air data systems. Aircraft stability is then briefly described. The unique advantages of FBW control are next covered and roll rate and pitch rate manoeuvre command control explained. Safety and integrity requirements are then discussed together with failure survival redundancy. The architecture and implementation of a quadruplex FBW system is explained. The problem of common-mode failures and the need for dissimilar redundancy are covered and the methods used to achieve dissimilar redundancy described.