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The history of Russian computer development is described from the first experiments in 1948 to modern times. In the past decade (1989-99), in connection with the change in the general political situation-the disintegration of the Soviet Union into independent states and the economic crisis in Russia-the conditions have changed for scientific research and education in the field of computers. In connection with industrial recession, this branch of science suffered heavy damage, especially in areas associated with the military-industrial complex. Russian enterprises have sharply reduced their development of computers oriented to military-industrial use. The restrictions of the state budget on science have had an effect on scientific activity of state research institutes and higher educational establishments. There have been changes in the system of financing scientific organizations and educational establishments.
Date of Publication: July-Sept. 1999