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Wide-load-range resonant converter supplying the SAE J-1773 electric vehicle inductive charging interface

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5 Author(s)
J. G. Hayes ; Gen. Motors Adv. Technol. Vehicles, Torrance, CA, USA ; M. G. Egan ; J. M. D. Murphy ; S. E. Schulz
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The recommended practice for electric vehicle battery charging using inductive coupling (SAE J-1773), published in January 1995 by the Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., outlines values and tolerances for critical vehicle inlet parameters which must be considered when selecting a coupler driving topology. The inductive coupling vehicle inlet contains a significant discrete capacitive component in addition to low magnetizing and high leakage inductances. Driving the vehicle interface with a variable-frequency series-resonant power converter results in a four-element topology with many desirable features: unity transformer turns ratio; buck/boost voltage gain; current-source operation; monotonic power transfer characteristic over a wide load range; throttling capability down to no load; high-frequency operation; narrow modulation frequency range; use of zero-voltage-switched MOSFETs with slow integral diodes; high efficiency; inherent short-circuit protection; soft recovery of output rectifiers; and secondary dν/dt control and current waveshaping for the cable, coupler and vehicle inlet, resulting in enhanced electromagnetic compatibility. In this paper, characteristics of the topology are derived and analyzed using two methods. Firstly, the fundamental mode AC sine-wave approximation is extended to battery loads and provides a simple, yet insightful, analysis of the topology. A second method of analysis is based on the more accurate, but complex, time-based modal approach. Finally, typical experimental results verify the analysis of the topology presented in the paper

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications  (Volume:35 ,  Issue: 4 )