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Three-dimensional FDTD analysis of a pulsed microwave confocal system for breast cancer detection: design of an antenna-array element

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3 Author(s)
Hagness, S.C. ; Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI, USA ; Taflove, Allen ; Bridges, J.E.

We are investigating a new ultrawide-band (UWB) microwave radar technology to detect and image early-stage malignant breast tumors that are often invisible to X rays. We present the methodology and initial results of three-dimensional (3-D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. The discussion concentrates on the design of a single resistively loaded bowtie antenna element of a proposed confocal sensor array. We present the reflection, radiation, and scattering properties of the electromagnetic pulse radiated by the antenna element within a homogeneous, layered half-space model of the human breast and the polarization and frequency-response characteristics of generic tumor shapes. We conclude that the dynamic range of a sensor array comprised of such elements in conjunction with existing microwave equipment is adequate to detect small cancerous tumors usually missed by X-ray mammography

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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:47 ,  Issue: 5 )