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This paper provides a review of twenty-five years of IBM sponsored research at universities intended to advance basic heat transfer technology for application in cooling computers. The research discussed covers a broad range of heat transfer topics, including natural convection and forced convection air cooling. Liquid forced convection, pool boiling, falling films, flow boiling, and liquid jet impingement. Examples of actual IBM cooling applications related to some of the research are given. In addition, some of the development activities conducted within IBM to advance computer cooling technology are highlighted. Specific topics covered are direct liquid cooling, thermal conduction module (TCM) cooling, low temperature cooling, and special cooling technology.