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Tunable coherent radiation in the soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions

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12 Author(s)
Attwood, D.T. ; Div. of Mater. Sci., Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA, USA ; Naulleau, P. ; Goldberg, Kenneth A. ; Tejnil, E.
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Undulator radiation, generated by relativistic electrons traversing a periodic magnet structure, can provide a continuously tunable source of very bright and partially coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV), soft X-ray (SXR), and X-ray regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Typically, 1-10 W are radiated within a 1/N relative spectral bandwidth, where N is of order 100. Monochromators are frequently used to narrow the spectral bandwidth and increase the longitudinal coherence length, albeit with a more than proportionate loss of power. Pinhole spatial filtering is employed to provide spatially coherent radiation at a power level determined by the wavelength, electron beam, and undulator parameters. In this paper, experiments are described in which broadly tunable, spatially coherent power is generated at EUV and soft X-ray wavelengths extending from about 3 to 16 nm (80-430-eV photon energies). Spatially coherent power of order 10 μW is achieved in a relative spectral bandwidth of 9×10-4, with 1.90-GeV electrons traversing an 8-cm period undulator of 55 periods. This radiation has been used in 13.4-nm interferometric tests that achieve an rms wavefront error (departure from sphericity) of λeuv/330. These techniques scale in a straightforward manner to shorter soft X-ray wavelengths using 4-5-cm period undulators at 1.90 GeV and to X-ray wavelengths of order 0.1 nm using higher energy (6-8 GeV) electron beams at other facilities

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Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of  (Volume:35 ,  Issue: 5 )