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We experimentally demonstrate a new technique for measurement of the differential group delay (DGD) in optical fibers using polarization-division multiplexed (PDM) solitons: the change in the separation of orthogonally polarized solitons propagating along different principal axes in a fiber equals the DGD at the signal wavelength. Based on this principle, we use PDM solitons to measure the accumulated DGD at different distances along a 400-km installed fiber. The measured DGD exhibits the expected square-root-of-length dependence, corresponding to a polarization-mode dispersion of 0.26 ps/km/sup 1/2/. The results are in excellent agreement with those obtained by a commercial instrument utilizing Jones matrix eigenanalysis.