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Simulation and modeling-the macro modeling of phase locked loops for the SPICE simulator

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1 Author(s)
M. Sitkowski ; Mentor Graphics Inc., Box Hill, Vic., Australia

A modeling approach that uses no semiconductor junctions and no regenerative feedback is described. The voltage-controlled oscillator is implemented by means of a circuit producing essentially infinite ringing, and the comparator characteristics are obtained by means of an odd-order polynomial transfer function. The design of the comparator, phase detector, low-pass filter, and error amplifier are also discussed. Performance of the complete macro-model is such that 8000-point simulations, corresponding to some 150 cycles of local oscillator, can be performed in about 15 min on a platform such as the Sun 3/60, or Apollo DN4500.<>

Published in:

IEEE Circuits and Devices Magazine  (Volume:7 ,  Issue: 2 )