Scheduled System Maintenance:
On May 6th, single article purchases and IEEE account management will be unavailable from 8:00 AM - 5:00 PM ET (12:00 - 21:00 UTC). We apologize for the inconvenience.
By Topic

Optimal control of walking with functional electrical stimulation: a computer simulation study

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$31 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

5 Author(s)
Popovic, D. ; Fac. of Electr. Eng., Belgrade Univ., Serbia ; Stein, R.B. ; Namik Oguztoreli, M. ; Lebiedowska, M.
more authors

Bipedal locomotion was simulated to generate a pattern of activating muscles for walking using electrical stimulation in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) or stroke. The simulation presented in this study starts from a model of the body determined with user-specific parameters, individualized with respect to the lengths, masses, inertia, muscle and joint properties. The trajectory used for simulation was recorded from an able-bodied subject while walking with ankle-foot orthoses. A discrete mathematical model and dynamic programming were used to determine the optimal control. A cost function was selected as the sum of the squares of the tracking errors from the desired trajectories, and the weighted sum of the squares of agonist and antagonist activations of the muscle groups acting around the hip and knee joints. The aim of the simulation was to study plausible trajectories keeping in mind the limitations imposed by the spinal cord injury or stroke (e.g., spasticity, decreased range of movements in some joints, limited strength of paralyzed, externally activated muscles). If the muscles were capable of generating the movements required and the trajectory was achieved, then the simulation provided two kinds of information: (1) timing of the onset and offset of muscle activations with respect to the various gait events and (2) patterns of activation with respect to the maximum activation. These results are important for synthesizing a rule-based controller

Published in:

Rehabilitation Engineering, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:7 ,  Issue: 1 )