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Advances in visualization technology and specialized graphic workstations allow clinicians to virtually interact with anatomical structures contained within sampled medical-image datasets. A hindrance to the effective use of this technology is the difficult problem of image segmentation. In this paper, the authors utilize a recently proposed oscillator network called the locally excitatory globally inhibitory oscillator network (LEGION) whose ability to achieve fast synchrony with local excitation and desynchrony with global inhibition makes it an effective computational framework for grouping similar features and segregating dissimilar ones in an image. The authors extract an algorithm from LEGION dynamics and propose an adaptive scheme for grouping. They show results of the algorithm to two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) (volume) computerized topography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) medical-image datasets. In addition, the authors compare their algorithm with other algorithms for medical-image segmentation, as well as with manual segmentation. LEGION's computational and architectural properties make it a promising approach for real-time medical-image segmentation.