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Forecasting generalized epileptic seizures from the EEG signal by wavelet analysis and dynamic unsupervised fuzzy clustering

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2 Author(s)
Geva, A.B. ; Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel ; Kerem, D.H.

Dynamic state recognition and event-prediction are fundamental tasks in biomedical signal processing. The authors present a new, electroencephalogram (EEG)-based, brain-state identification method which could form the basis for forecasting a generalized epileptic seizure. The method relies on the existence in the EEG of a preseizure state, with extractable unique features, a priori undefined. The authors exposed 25 rats to hyperbaric oxygen until the appearance of a generalized EEG seizure. EEG segments from the preexposure, early exposure, and the period up to and including the seizure were processed by the fast wavelet transform. Features extracted from the wavelet coefficients were inputted to the unsupervised optimal fuzzy clustering (UOFC) algorithm. The UOFC is useful for classifying similar discontinuous temporal patterns in the semistationary EEG to a set of clusters which may represent brain-states. The unsupervised selection of the number of clusters overcomes the a priori unknown and variable number of states. The usually vague brain state transitions are naturally treated by assigning each temporal pattern to one or more fuzzy clusters. The classification succeeded in identifying several, behavior-backed, EEG states such as sleep, resting, alert and active wakefulness, as well as the seizure. In 16 instances a preseizure state, lasting between 0.7 and 4 min was defined. Considerable individual variability in the number and characteristics of the clusters may postpone the realization of an early universal epilepsy warning. Universality may not be crucial if using a dynamic version of the UOFC which has been taught the individual's normal vocabulary of EEG states and can be expected to detect unspecified new states.

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Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:45 ,  Issue: 10 )