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Coordinated three-dimensional motion of the head and torso by dynamic neural networks

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2 Author(s)
Jaywoo Kim ; Samsung Motors Technol. Center, Kyungki-Do, South Korea ; Hooshang Hemami

The problem of trajectory tracking control of a three dimensional (3D) model of the human upper torso and head is considered. The torso and the head are modeled as two rigid bodies connected at one point, and the Newton-Euler method is used to derive the nonlinear differential equations that govern the motion of the system. The two-link system is driven by six pairs of muscle like actuators that possess physiologically inspired alpha like and gamma like inputs, and spindle like and Golgi tendon organ like outputs. These outputs are utilized as reflex feedback for stability and stiffness control, in a long loop feedback for the purpose of estimating the state of the system (somesthesis), and as part of the input to the controller. Ideal delays of different duration are included in the feedforward and feedback paths of the system to emulate such delays encountered in physiological systems. Dynamical neural networks are trained to learn effective control of the desired maneuvers of the system. The feasibility of the controller is demonstrated by computer simulation of the successful execution of the desired maneuvers. This work demonstrates the capabilities of neural circuits in controlling highly nonlinear systems with multidelays in their feedforward and feedback paths. The ultimate long range goal of this research is toward understanding the working of the central nervous system in controlling movement. It is an interdisciplinary effort relying on mechanics, biomechanics, neuroscience, system theory, physiology and anatomy, and its short range relevance to rehabilitation must be noted.

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B (Cybernetics)  (Volume:28 ,  Issue: 5 )