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Assigning anatomic labels to coronary arteries in X-ray angiograms is an important task in medical imaging, motivated by the desire to standardize the assessment of coronary artery disease and to facilitate the three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction and visualization of the coronary vasculature. However, automatic labeling poses a number of significant challenges, including the presence of noise, artifacts, competing structures, misleading visual cues, and other difficulties associated with a dynamic and inherently complex structure. The authors have developed a model-guided approach that addresses these challenges and automatically labels the vascular structure in coronary angiographic images. The approach consists of two models: (1) a symbolic model, represented through a directed acyclic graph, that captures vascular tree hierarchies and branch interrelationships and (2) a generalized 3-D model that captures spatial and geometric relationships. Importantly, the approach detects ambiguities (such as vessel overlaps) that may be found in a frame of a cine sequence, and resolves these ambiguities by considering the information derived from other (unambiguous) frames in the temporal sequence, employing dynamic programming methods to match the image features found in the different (ambiguous and unambiguous) frames. This paper presents this model-guided labeling algorithm and discusses the experimental results obtained from implementing and applying the resulting labeling system to a variety of clinical images. The results indicate the feasibility of achieving robust and consistently accurate image labeling through this model-guided, temporal disambiguation method.