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Defect tolerance in VLSI circuits: techniques and yield analysis

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2 Author(s)
Koren, I. ; Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Massachusetts Univ., Amherst, MA, USA ; Koren, Z.

Current very-large-scale-integration (VLSI) technology allows the manufacture of large-area integrated circuits with submicrometer feature sizes, enabling designs with several millions of devices. However, imperfections in the fabrication process result in yield-reducing manufacturing defects, whose severity grows proportionally with the size and density of the chip. Consequently, the development and use of yield-enhancement techniques at the design stage, to complement existing efforts at the manufacturing stage, is economically justifiable. Design-stage yield-enhancement techniques are aimed at making the integrated circuit “defect tolerant”, i.e., less sensitive to manufacturing defects. They include incorporating redundancy into the design, modifying the circuit floorplan, and modifying its layout. Successful designs of defect-tolerant chips must rely on accurate yield projections. This paper reviews the currently used statistical yield-prediction models and their application to defect-tolerant designs. We then provide a detailed survey of various yield-enhancement techniques and illustrate their use by describing the design of several representative defect-tolerant VLSI circuits

Published in:

Proceedings of the IEEE  (Volume:86 ,  Issue: 9 )