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A number of impedance-based fault location algorithms have been developed for estimating the distance to faults in a transmission network. Each algorithm has specific input data requirements and makes certain assumptions that may or may not hold true in a particular fault location scenario. Without a detailed understanding of the principle of each fault-locating method, choosing the most suitable fault location algorithm can be a challenging task. This paper, therefore, presents the theory of one-ended (simple reactance, Takagi, modified Takagi, Eriksson, and Novosel et al.) and two-ended (synchronized, unsynchronized, and current-only) impedance-based fault location algorithms and demonstrates their application in locating real-world faults. The theory details the formulation and input data requirement of each fault-locating algorithm and evaluates the sensitivity of each to the following error sources: 1) load; 2) remote infeed; 3) fault resistance; 4) mutual coupling; 5) inaccurate line impedances; 6) DC offset and CT saturation; 7) three-terminal lines; and 8) tapped radial lines. From the theoretical analysis and field data testing, the following criteria are recommended for choosing the most suitable fault-locating algorithm: 1) data availability and 2) fault location application scenario. Another objective of this paper is to assess what additional information can be gleaned from waveforms recorded by intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) during a fault. Actual fault event data captured in utility networks is exploited to gain valuable feedback about the transmission network upstream from the IED device, and estimate the value of fault resistance.