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Computer simulation of FES standing up in paraplegia: a self-adaptive fuzzy controller with reinforcement learning

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2 Author(s)
Davoodi, R. ; Dept. of Biomed. Eng., Alberta Univ., Edmonton, Alta., Canada ; Andrews, B.J.

Using computer simulation, the theoretical feasibility of functional electrical stimulation (FES) assisted standing up is demonstrated using a closed-loop self-adaptive fuzzy logic controller based on reinforcement machine learning (FLC-RL). The control goal was to minimize upper limb forces and the terminal velocity of the knee joint. The reinforcement learning (RL) technique was extended to multicontroller problems in continuous state and action spaces. The validated algorithms were used to synthesize FES controllers for the knee and hip joints in simulated paraplegic standing up. The FLC-RL controller was able to achieve the maneuver with only 22% of the upper limb force required to stand-up without FES and to simultaneously reduce the terminal velocity of the knee joint close to zero. The FLC-RL controller demonstrated, as expected, the closed loop fuzzy logic control and on-line self-adaptation capability of the RL was able to accommodate for simulated disturbances due to voluntary arm forces, FES induced muscle fatigue and anthropometric differences between individuals. A method of incorporating a priori heuristic rule based knowledge is described that could reduce the number of the learning trials required to establish a usable control strategy. The authors also discuss how such heuristics may also be incorporated into the initial FLC-RL controller to ensure safe operation from the onset

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Rehabilitation Engineering, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:6 ,  Issue: 2 )