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The rising global energy demand has stressed the need to develop and implement novel materials and methods for sustainably harvesting, conserving, and using energy. The ability to control the interconversion of energy from one form to another with a high rate and efficiency at low cost is essential. Electrochemistry is a fundamental science to study the conversion between electrical and chemical energies. Its principle has been applied to a range of energy technologies, including batteries, fuel cells, and electrolytic or solar water splitting devices. In contrast to fossil fuel combustion, electrochemical reactions are direct and clean processes with minimal environmental impact. They are not limited by Carnot efficiency and therefore can attain substantially higher efficiency than, for example, a conventional heat engine at low temperatures.