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Summary form only given.Nanometer size crystals of inorganic semiconductors display a wealth of size dependent optical and electrical characteristics. Such nanocrystals (CdS, CdSe, InP, InAs), with well controlled interfaces, can now be fabricated by colloidal chemistry techniques. The resulting particles are extremely flexible chemically. Examples where nanocrystals have been incorporated into LEDs, photovoltaics, transistors, and on cell surfaces are described.