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A temperature sensor based on photonic crystal fiber (PCF) surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is proposed in this paper. We use the dual function of the PCF filled with different concentrations of analyte and silver nanowires to realize temperature sensing. The proposed sensor has been analyzed through numerical simulations and demonstrated by experiments. The results of the simulations and experiments show that a blue shift will be obtained with the temperature increase, and different concentrations will change the resonance wavelength and confinement loss. Temperature sensitivity is as high as 2.7 nm/°C with the experiment, which can provide a reference for the implementation and application of a PCF-based SPR temperature sensor or other PCF-based SPR sensing.