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Summary form only given. A brief history of the laser cooling and trapping of atoms will be presented, covering some of the cooling and trapping techniques that have been developed in the 1980s and 1990s. The cooling and trapping technology is already being applied in numerous areas of science and engineering. Applications to be discussed include atomic clocks, atom interferometers for inertial sensors, and for the measurement of the fine structure constant, as well as studies in polymer dynamics and protein motion.