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Testing configurable LUT-based FPGA's

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4 Author(s)
Wei Kang Huang ; Dept. of Electron. Eng., Fudan Univ., Shanghai, China ; Meyer, F.J. ; Xia-Tao Chen ; Lombardi, Fabrizio

We present a new technique for testing field programmable gate arrays (FPGA's) based on look-up tables (LUT's). We consider a generalized structure for the basic FPGA logic element (cell); it includes devices such as LUT's, sequential elements (flip-flops), multiplexers and control circuitry. We use a hybrid fault model for these devices. The model is based on a physical as well as a behavioral characterization. This permits detection of all single faults (either stuck-at or functional) and some multiple faults using repeated FPGA reprogramming. We show that different arrangements of disjoint one-dimensional (l-D) cell arrays with cascaded horizontal connections and common vertical input lines provide a good logic testing regimen. The testing time is independent of the number of cells in the array (C-testability), We define new conditions for C-testability of programmable/reconfigurable arrays. These conditions do not suffer from limited I/O pins. Cell configuration affects the controllability/observability of the iterative array. We apply the approach to various Xilinx FPGA families and compare it to prior work.

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Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:6 ,  Issue: 2 )