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Workload-Aware Credit Scheduler for Improving Network I/O Performance in Virtualization Environment

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3 Author(s)
HaiBing Guan ; Dept. of Comput., Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai, China ; Ruhui Ma ; Jian Li

Single-root I/O virtualization (SR-IOV) has become the de facto standard of network virtualization in cloud infrastructure. Owing to the high interrupt frequency and heavy cost per interrupt in high-speed network virtualization, the performance of network virtualization is closely correlated to the computing resource allocation policy in Virtual Machine Manager (VMM). Therefore, more sophisticated methods are needed to process irregularity and the high frequency of network interrupts in high-speed network virtualization environment. However, the I/O-intensive and CPU-intensive applications in virtual machines are treated in the same manner since application attributes are transparent to the scheduler in hypervisor, and this unawareness of workload makes virtual systems unable to take full advantage of high performance networks. In this paper, we discuss the SR-IOV networking solution and show by experiment that the current credit scheduler in Xen does not utilize high performance networks efficiently. Hence we propose a novel workload-aware scheduling model with two optimizations to eliminate the bottleneck caused by scheduler. In this model, guest domains are divided into I/O-intensive domains and CPU-intensive domains according to their monitored behaviour. I/O-intensive domains can obtain extra credits that CPU-intensive domains are willing to share. In addition, the total number of credits available is adjusted to accelerate the I/O responsiveness. Our experimental evaluations show that the new scheduling models improve bandwidth and reduce response time, by keeping the fairness between I/O-intensive and CPU-intensive domains. This enables virtualization infrastructure to provide cloud computing services more efficiently and predictably.

Published in:

Cloud Computing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:2 ,  Issue: 2 )