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Active distribution grid is composed of autonomous systems which should collaborate with each other in order to operate the entire distribution grid in a secure and economic manner. This paper presents a system of systems (SoS) framework for optimally operating active distribution grids. The proposed SoS framework defines both distribution company (DISCO) and microgrids (MGs) as independent systems, and identifies the process of information exchange among them. As the DISCO and MGs are physically connected together, the operating condition of one might impact the operating point of other systems. The proposed mathematical model uses a decentralized optimization problem aimed at maximizing the benefit of each independent system. A hierarchical optimization algorithm is presented to coordinate the independent systems and to find the optimal operating point of the SoS-based active distribution grid. The numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed SoS framework and solution methodology.