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Electron and ion irradiation of carbon fibers with the purpose of directed modification of their properties - perspective area as scientific researches and practical application. Irradiation of fibers by ions of nonmetals (carbon, nitrogen and oxygen), metals and electrons can change surface and chemical structure of fiber (especially after the implantation in a fiber of ions of metals). We hope, that by means of ion and electron irradiation, it is possible to change the physicochemical properties of carbon fibers and probably even design composite materials. In the present work results of experimental research of physicochemical and mechanical properties of a carbon fiber, subjected to irradiation by ions of carbon and nitrogen and an electron beam are reported.