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The world is connected by a core network of long-haul optical communication systems that link countries and continents, enabling long-distance phone calls, data-center communications, and the Internet. The demands on information rates have been constantly driven up by applications such as online gaming, high-definition video, and cloud computing. All over the world, end-user connection speeds are being increased by replacing conventional digital subscriber line (DSL) and asymmetric DSL (ADSL) with fiber to the home. Clearly, the capacity of the core network must also increase proportionally.