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A New Mass Production Technology for High-Efficiency Thin-Film CIS-Absorber Formation

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11 Author(s)
Probst, V. ; R&D, Bosch Solar CISTech GmbH, Brandenburg, Germany ; Koetschau, I. ; Novak, E. ; Jasenek, A.
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A new mass production technology for CIS-absorber formation yielding high-average module efficiencies is introduced. A novel custom-designed oven very successfully exploits the principle of forced convection during heating, CIS formation reaction, and cooling. Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S) 2 absorbers are formed by metal precursor deposition on soda lime glass followed by reaction in selenium/sulfur atmosphere. Processing is performed in a multiple-chamber equipment which handles corrosive, flammable, and toxic process gases from atmospheric pressure to vacuum at high durability. The substrates (size: 50 cm × 120 cm) are processed in batches up to 102 substrates, applying forced convection for very homogenous heat transfer and high heating and cooling rates. Multiple-chamber design and batch size yield high throughput at cycle times above 1 h. This approach combines the specific advantages of batch type and inline processing. An excellent average efficiency of 14.3% with a narrow distribution (+/-0.31%) and a peak efficiency of 15.1% is shown with this technology. Module characteristic distributions during pilot production are presented. Detailed layer analytics is discussed. This straightforward reliable mass production technology is a key for highest module performance and for upscaling. Module efficiencies of 17% can be reached, enabling production costs below 0.38 US$/Wp in a projected GWp plant.

Published in:

Photovoltaics, IEEE Journal of  (Volume:4 ,  Issue: 2 )