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Contrast Enhancement-Based Forensics in Digital Images

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4 Author(s)
Gang Cao ; Inst. of Inf. Sci., Beijing Jiaotong Univ., Beijing, China ; Yao Zhao ; Rongrong Ni ; Xuelong Li

As a retouching manipulation, contrast enhancement is typically used to adjust the global brightness and contrast of digital images. Malicious users may also perform contrast enhancement locally for creating a realistic composite image. As such it is significant to detect contrast enhancement blindly for verifying the originality and authenticity of the digital images. In this paper, we propose two novel algorithms to detect the contrast enhancement involved manipulations in digital images. First, we focus on the detection of global contrast enhancement applied to the previously JPEG-compressed images, which are widespread in real applications. The histogram peak/gap artifacts incurred by the JPEG compression and pixel value mappings are analyzed theoretically, and distinguished by identifying the zero-height gap fingerprints. Second, we propose to identify the composite image created by enforcing contrast adjustment on either one or both source regions. The positions of detected blockwise peak/gap bins are clustered for recognizing the contrast enhancement mappings applied to different source regions. The consistency between regional artifacts is checked for discovering the image forgeries and locating the composition boundary. Extensive experiments have verified the effectiveness and efficacy of the proposed techniques.

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Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:9 ,  Issue: 3 )