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We investigate performance limits of a multiple access communication system with energy harvesting nodes where the utility function is taken to be the long-term average sum-throughput. We assume a causal structure for energy arrivals and study the problem in the continuous time regime. For this setting, we first characterize a storage dam model that captures the dynamics of a battery with energy harvesting and variable transmission power. Using this model, we next establish an upper bound on the throughput problem as a function of battery capacity. We also formulate a nonlinear optimization problem to determine optimal achievable power policies for transmitters. Applying a calculus of variations technique, we then derive Euler-Lagrange equations as necessary conditions for optimum power policies in terms of a system of coupled partial integro-differential equations. Based on a Gauss-Seidel algorithm, we devise an iterative algorithm to solve these equations. We also propose a fixed-point algorithm for the symmetric multiple access setting in which the statistical descriptions of energy harvesters are identical. To further support our iterative algorithms, along with the analysis, comprehensive numerical results are also obtained.