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Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) is one of the most difficult tasks in mobile robotics. While the construction of consistent and coherent local solutions is simple, the SLAM remains a critical problem as the distance travelled by the robot increases. To circumvent this limitation, many strategies divide the environment in small regions, and formulate the SLAM problem as a combination of multiple precise submaps. In this paper, we propose a new submap-based particle filter algorithm called Segmented DP-SLAM, that combines an optimized data structure to store the maps of the particles with a probabilistic map of segments, representing hypothesis of submaps topologies. We evaluate our method through experimental results obtained in simulated and real environments.