Skip to Main Content
The traditional method for calculating acoustic pressure amplitude is to divide a hydrophone output voltage measurement by the hydrophone sensitivity at the acoustic working frequency, but this approach neglects frequency dependence of hydrophone sensitivity. Another method is to perform a complex deconvolution between the hydrophone output waveform and the hydrophone impulse response (the inverse Fourier transform of the sensitivity). In this paper, the effects of deconvolution on measurements of peak compressional pressure (p+), peak rarefactional pressure (p-), and pulse intensity integral (PII) are studied. Time-delay spectrometry (TDS) was used to measure complex sensitivities from 1 to 40 MHz for 8 hydrophones used in medical ultrasound exposimetry. These included polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) spot-poled membrane, needle, capsule, and fiber-optic designs. Subsequently, the 8 hydrophones were used to measure a 4-cycle, 3 MHz pressure waveform mimicking a pulsed Doppler waveform. Acoustic parameters were measured for the 8 hydrophones using the traditional approach and deconvolution. Average measurements (across all 8 hydrophones) of acoustic parameters from deconvolved waveforms were 4.8 MPa (p+), 2.4 MPa (p-), and 0.21 mJ/cm2 (PII). Compared with the traditional method, deconvolution reduced the coefficient of variation (ratio of standard deviation to mean across all 8 hydrophones) from 29% to 8% (p+), 39% to 13% (p-), and 58% to 10% (PII).