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CIGS Cells and Modules With High Efficiency on Glass and Flexible Substrates

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18 Author(s)
Michael Powalla ; Zentrum fur Sonnenenergieund Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wurttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart, Germany ; Wolfram Witte ; Philip Jackson ; Stefan Paetel
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Thin-film solar cells based on Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S) 2 (CIGS) have demonstrated both high efficiencies and a high cost-reduction potential in industrial production. This way, future CIGS module production lines can be profitable even for scales below the GW range. Among the different technologies, only the coevaporation method has demonstrated efficiencies above 20%, approaching the record values of polycrystalline Si cells. The main focus of this contribution is on the new results of the ZSW cell line with efficiencies above 20%, as well as on the mini-module line on glass substrates. Mini modules (10 cm × 10 cm) with efficiencies in the range of 17% give a proof of concept for industrial-sized modules. ZSW is also developing flexible cells and modules, transferring the processes from the glass-based technology. We achieved 18.6% cell efficiency on metal substrates and a 15.4% efficient mini module could be demonstrated with adapted methods of module patterning. In order to develop industrially relevant processes for foils, we are running a roll-to-roll deposition plant. Additionally, we have improved CIGS cell efficiencies with alternative buffers to certified 19.0% for solution-grown Zn(O,S), to 16.4% for sputtered Zn(O,S), and 17.1% for evaporated In 2S 3. Our cells deposited by vacuum-free methods exhibit an efficiency of 8.5% with a nanoparticle-based process.

Published in:

IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics  (Volume:4 ,  Issue: 1 )