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Emergency Response: U.S. System Frequency with High Wind Penetration

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4 Author(s)
Miller, N. ; Energy Consulting, GE Energy, Schenectady, NY, USA ; Loutan, C. ; Miaolei Shao ; Clark, K.

The reliable operation of a power system depends on maintaining frequency within predetermined limits around the nominal operating frequency (60 Hertz in North America). A fundamental aspect of operating an electric power grid reliably is that the amount of power produced at any given instant must match almost exactly the amount of power being consumed. If extra power is produced, the frequency will tend to increase. If less power is produced, the frequency will tend to decrease. The frequency of the interconnected grid is mostly controlled by adjusting the output of generators in order to maintain a balance between generation and load. This balancing and frequency control occur over a continuum of time, using different resources that fall into the categories of primary, secondary, or tertiary controls.

Published in:

Power and Energy Magazine, IEEE  (Volume:11 ,  Issue: 6 )