By Topic

Solar Cell Efficiency Losses Due to Impurities From the Crucible in Multicrystalline Silicon

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$31 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

6 Author(s)
Schindler, F. ; Fraunhofer Inst. fur Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg, Germany ; Michl, B. ; Schon, J. ; Kwapil, W.
more authors

The electrical material quality of multicrystalline (mc) silicon for photovoltaic applications suffers from crystal defects as well as from impurities that originate from the feedstock, the quartz crucible, and its coating. In this study, we investigate the influence of impurities from the crucible on efficiency losses in mc silicon solar cells, focusing on the limitation due to iron. The applicability of p-type mc silicon, crystallized in G1 sized crucibles of industrial material quality and very pure electrically fused silica, for a high-efficiency solar cell process is examined by measuring lifetime and interstitial iron concentration in the wafers after different processing steps and by estimating the cell efficiency potential from injection-dependent bulk lifetime measurements. Interstitial iron concentrations extracted from 2-D simulations of iron precipitation at crystal defects and gettering during processing agree well with Fei measurements at different process stages and explain the observations. Efficiency losses are quantified to losses due to segregated impurities diffused into the silicon melt, losses due to decorated crystal defects and losses due to solid-state diffusion into the crystal. By using a high-purity crucible, losses are reduced significantly and an efficiency gain of 0.5% absolute is estimated to be attainable on wafers with edge region.

Published in:

Photovoltaics, IEEE Journal of  (Volume:4 ,  Issue: 1 )