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Wide-band multiport antenna characterization by polarimetric RCS measurements

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2 Author(s)
Wiesbeck, W. ; Inst. fur Hochstfrequenztech. und Elektronik, Karlsruhe Univ., Germany ; Heidrich, E.

A theoretical description of the scattering of multiport antennas is derived in accordance with the polarimetric radar target characterization. For two-port antennas with dual linear orthogonal polarization, a procedure for the determination of the antenna mode scattering parameters and the structural scattering parameters of the complete polarimetric antenna scattering matrix [S] is given. A measurement setup and experimental results of wide-band polarimetric radar cross section (RCS) antenna measurements are presented. For two-port antennas, in total, 24 unknowns have to be determined. The load variation method is used. The polarimetric RCS antenna measurement is especially advantageous over a wide bandwidth; for example 2-40 GHz with only one single calibration. From the antenna scattering matrix [S], the antenna parameters like polarimetric gain, optimum gain, gain bandwidth, wave admittance, structural scattering, etc., are derived. Results are shown for an X-band horn antenna and a 2-18-GHz dual linearly polarized horn. The measurement technique and evaluation gives the most complete and very accurate information about antenna radiation, antenna characteristics, and scattering obtainable with one single measurement setup. Some quantities determined here, like the maximum available gain and the polarization characteristics, are difficult to access with standard transmission measurements. No cable from the antenna to the receiver is necessary. This helps avoid some difficulties usually experienced at low signal levels

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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:46 ,  Issue: 3 )