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A 1024 ,\times, 8, 700-ps Time-Gated SPAD Line Sensor for Planetary Surface Exploration With Laser Raman Spectroscopy and LIBS

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3 Author(s)
Maruyama, Y. ; Delft Univ. of Technol., Delft, Netherlands ; Blacksberg, J. ; Charbon, E.

A 1024 × 8 time-gated, single-photon avalanche diode line sensor is presented for time-resolved laser Raman spectroscopy and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Two different chip geometries were implemented and characterized. A type-I sensor has a maximum photon detection efficiency of 0.3% and median dark count rate of 80 Hz at 3 V of excess bias. A type-II sensor offers a maximum photon detection efficiency of 19.3% and a median dark count rate of 5.7 kHz at 3 V of excess bias. Both chips have 250-ps temporal resolution and fast gating capability, with a minimum gate width of 1.8 ns for type I and 0.7 ns for type II. Raman spectra were successfully observed from natural minerals, such as calcite and willemite. With the use of subnanosecond gating, background fluorescence was significantly reduced.

Published in:

Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of  (Volume:49 ,  Issue: 1 )