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A Survey of Radio Propagation Modeling for Tunnels

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3 Author(s)
Hrovat, A. ; Dept. of Commun. Syst., Jovzef Stefan Inst., Ljubljana, Slovenia ; Kandus, G. ; Javornik, T.

Radio signal propagation modeling plays an important role in designing wireless communication systems. The propagation models are used to calculate the number and position of base stations and predict the radio coverage. Different models have been developed to predict radio propagation behavior for wireless communication systems in different operating environments. In this paper we shall limit our discussion to the latest achievements in radio propagation modeling related to tunnels. The main modeling approaches used for propagation in tunnels are reviewed, namely, numerical methods for solving Maxwell equations, waveguide or modal approach, ray tracing based methods and two-slope path loss modeling. They are discussed in terms of modeling complexity and required information on the environment including tunnel geometry and electric as well as magnetic properties of walls.

Published in:

Communications Surveys & Tutorials, IEEE  (Volume:16 ,  Issue: 2 )