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Design and evaluation of a feedback based phased array system for ultrasound surgery

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4 Author(s)
Daum, D.R. ; Dept. of Radiol., Harvard Med. Sch., Boston, MA, USA ; Buchanan, M.T. ; Fjield, T. ; Hynynen, K.

A driving system has been designed for phased array ultrasound applicators. The system is designed to-operate in the bandwidth 1.2 to 1.8 MHz, with independent channel power control up to 60 W (8 bit resolution) for each array element. To reduce power variation between elements, the system utilizes switching regulators in a feedback loop to automatically adjust the DC supply of a class D/E power converter. This feedback reduces the RF electrical power variation from 20% to 1% into a 16 element array. DC-to-RF efficiencies close to 70% for all power levels eliminates the need for large heat sinks. In addition to power control, each channel may be phase shifted 360/spl deg/ with a minimum of 8 bit resolution. To ensure proper operation while driving ultrasound arrays with varying element sizes, each RF driving channel implements phase feedback such that proper phase of the driving signal is produced either at the amplifier output before the matching circuitry or after the matching circuitry at the transducer face. This feedback has been experimentally shown to increase the focal intensities by 20 to 25% of two tested phased arrays without array calibration using a hydrophone.

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Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:45 ,  Issue: 2 )