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In this paper, we survey key design for manufacturing issues for extreme scaling with emerging nanolithography technologies, including double/multiple patterning lithography, extreme ultraviolet lithography, and electron-beam lithography. These nanolithography and nanopatterning technologies have different manufacturing processes and their unique challenges to very large scale integration (VLSI) physical design, mask synthesis, and so on. It is essential to have close VLSI design and underlying process technology co-optimization to achieve high product quality (power/performance, etc.) and yield while making future scaling cost-effective and worthwhile. Recent results and examples will be discussed to show the enablement and effectiveness of such design and process integration, including lithography model/analysis, mask synthesis, and lithography friendly physical design.