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Subsurface radar techniques are increasingly being used for the detection and location of buried artefacts and structures within the upper regions of the Earth's surface. The paper reviews the work done to date in this field, laying emphasis on the range of applications and the need for system design to match the intended application. An overall design strategy is outlined, together with a more detailed treatment of a range of topics which are relevant to effective subsurface radar operation. These include the dielectric properties of Earth materials, signal modulation schemes, design and construction of suitable antennas, and methods of signal processing. Finally, an assessment is made of future prospects, both technical and commercial, for this developing area of radar technology.