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In this paper, nine different samples of YAIO3:Ce have been collected and analyzed. The light yield non-proportionality of each sample was measured and used to classify each sample as proportional or non-proportional. A variety of scintillation and optical measurements were conducted on each sample, and the proportional samples were generally found to have a higher light output and better energy resolution. In addition, a strong linear correlation was found between scintillation decay time and the degree of non-proportionality. Based on absorption measurements as well as radioluminescence data, it was determined that the non-proportional samples all shared a range of increased absorption near the cerium 5d absorption edge between about 325 and 400 nm. The increased absorption has been reported in literature, and it is believed to be the result of a material defect introduced during growth. Thermoluminescence glow curves were measured for two representative YAIO3:Ce samples, one from each proportionality grouping, and it was determined that there was an observable change in defect structure, but there were no additional traps visible in the glow curves of either the proportional or non-proportional samples. However, the intensity of the 105 K thermoluminescence peak was found to be approximately a factor of two greater in the non-proportional samples. Since the lifetime of this peak is known to be between 25 and 81 ns, it was determined to be the likely cause of the slower decay in the non-proportional samples.