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An adaptive controller is demonstrated that is capable of both obtaining and maintaining high-energy, single-pulse states in a mode-locked fiber laser. In particular, a multi-parameter extremum-seeking control (ESC) algorithm is used on a nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) based laser using waveplate and polarizer angles to achieve optimal passive mode-locking despite large disturbances to the system. The physically realizable objective function introduced divides the energy output by the kurtosis of the pulse spectrum, thus balancing the total energy with the coherence of the mode-locked solution. In addition, its peaks are high-energy mode-locked states that have a safety margin near parameter regimes where mode-locking breaks down or the multipulsing instability occurs. The ESC is demonstrated by numerical simulations of a single-NPR mode-locked laser and is able to track locally maximal mode-locked states despite significant disturbances to parameters such as the fiber birefringence.