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Photovoltaics (PVs) are typically modeled only for their forward-biased dc characteristics, as in the commonly used single-diode model. While this approach accurately models the I-V curve under steady forward bias, it lacks dynamic and reverse-bias characteristics. The dynamic characteristics, primarily parallel capacitance and series inductance, affect operation when a PV cell or string interacts with switching converters or experiences sudden transients. Reverse-bias characteristics are often ignored because PV devices are not intended to operate in the reverse-biased region. However, when partial shading occurs on a string of PVs, the shaded cell can become reverse biased and develop into a hot spot that permanently degrades the cell. To fully examine PV behavior under hot spots and various other faults, reverse-bias characteristics must also be modeled. This study develops a comprehensive mathematical PV model based on circuit components that accounts for forward bias, reverse bias, and dynamic characteristics. Using a series of three experimental tests on an unilluminated PV cell, all required model parameters are determined. The model is implemented in MATLAB Simulink and accurately models the measured data.