Skip to Main Content
We present an ultra-low power temperature sensor embedded in the passive RFID tag using the TSMC 1P6M 0.18 μm standard CMOS process. Substrate parasitic NPN bipolar pair is exploited to generate the temperature dependent current signals for thermal sensing. A time-domain readout scheme which has high immunity to the on-chip resistor, capacitor and clock frequency process-voltage-temperature (PVT) spreads is further proposed. Measurement results of the embedded sensor within the tag system shows a sensing accuracy of ±1.5°C (3σ) from -30°C to 60 °C after one-point calibration at 20 °C, with a sensing resolution of 0.3 °C and a sampling rate of 68 samples per second. The embedded sensor draws 0.35 μA from a 1 V supply at room temperature and occupies a chip area of 0.14 mm2.