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Video Watermarking With Empirical PCA-Based Decoding

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2 Author(s)
Khalilian, H. ; Sch. of Eng. Sci., Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC, Canada ; Bajic, I.V.

A new method for video watermarking is presented in this paper. In the proposed method, data are embedded in the LL subband of wavelet coefficients, and decoding is performed based on the comparison among the elements of the first principal component resulting from empirical principal component analysis (PCA). The locations for data embedding are selected such that they offer the most robust PCA-based decoding. Data are inserted in the LL subband in an adaptive manner based on the energy of high frequency subbands and visual saliency. Extensive testing was performed under various types of attacks, such as spatial attacks (uniform and Gaussian noise and median filtering), compression attacks (MPEG-2, H. 263, and H. 264), and temporal attacks (frame repetition, frame averaging, frame swapping, and frame rate conversion). The results show that the proposed method offers improved performance compared with several methods from the literature, especially under additive noise and compression attacks.

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Image Processing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:22 ,  Issue: 12 )