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Characteristics of acoustic streaming created and measured by pulsed Doppler ultrasound

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1 Author(s)
C. J. Hartley ; Dept. of Med., Baylor Coll. of Med., Houston, TX, USA

Self measurement of acoustic streaming by Doppler ultrasound could be used to evaluate properties of fluids such as viscosity or the coagulation of blood. To characterize acoustic streaming caused by pulsed ultrasonic beams, Doppler signal processing was used to measure streaming velocity under a variety of conditions in vitro using blood and water. Velocities as high as 5 mm/s were measured in blood at the diagnostic power levels (3.5 mW) used in 20 MHz catheter velocimetry. It was found that streaming decreases with distance due to absorption and beam spreading, increases with applied acoustic power, and decreases with increased viscosity during blood coagulation. However, the increase in velocity with acoustic power is nonlinear with an exponent of 0.67 for water and 1.42 for blood even though the radiation force as measured by deflection of a suspended transducer is linear with power. The time constant of streaming to a step change in acoustic power is 80 ms in blood and 200 ms in water. It is concluded that streaming is measurable in pulsed Doppler beams, that it could produce artifacts or unintended effects, and that it could be used to characterize fluid properties and to detect coagulation of whole blood.

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control  (Volume:44 ,  Issue: 6 )