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Level-set-based inverse lithography for mask synthesis using the conjugate gradient and an optimal time step

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6 Author(s)
Lv, Wen ; Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China ; Liu, Shiyuan ; Xia, Qi ; Wu, Xiaofei
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Inverse mask synthesis is achieved by minimizing a cost function on the difference between the output and desired patterns. Such a minimization problem can be solved by a level-set method where the boundary of the pattern is iteratively evolved. However, this evolution is time-consuming in practice and usually converges to a local minimum. The velocity of the boundary evolution and the size of the evolution step, also known as the descent direction and the step size in optimization theory, have a dramatic influence on the convergence properties. This paper focuses on developing a more efficient algorithm with faster convergence and improved performance such as smaller pattern error, lower mean edge placement error, wider defocus band, and higher normalized image log slope. These improvements are accomplished by employing the conjugate gradient of the cost function as the evolution velocity, and by introducing an optimal time step for each iteration of the boundary evolution. The latter is obtained from an extended Euler time range by using a line search method. The authors present simulations demonstrating the efficacy of these two improvements.

Published in:

Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures  (Volume:31 ,  Issue: 4 )

Date of Publication:

Jul 2013

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