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A Fill Factor Loss Analysis Method for Silicon Wafer Solar Cells

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6 Author(s)
Khanna, A. ; Solar Energy Res. Inst. of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore ; Mueller, T. ; Stangl, R.A. ; Hoex, B.
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The fill factor of silicon wafer solar cells is strongly influenced by recombination currents and ohmic resistances. A practical upper limit for the fill factor of crystalline silicon solar cells operating under low-level injection is set by recombination in the quasi-neutral bulk and at the two cell surfaces. Series resistance, shunt resistance, and additional recombination currents further lower the fill factor. For process optimization or loss analysis of solar cells, it is important to determine the influence of both ohmic and recombination loss mechanisms on the fill factor. In this paper, a method is described to quantify the loss in fill factor due to series resistance, shunt resistance, and additional recombination currents. Only the 1-Sun J-V curve, series resistance at the maximum power point, and shunt resistance need to be determined to apply the method. Application of the method is demonstrated on an 18.4% efficient inline-diffused p-type silicon wafer solar cell and a 21.1% efficient heterojunction n-type silicon wafer solar cell. Our analysis does not require J-V curve fitting to extract diode saturation current densities or ideality factor; however, the results are shown to be consistent with curve fitting results if the cell's two-diode model parameters can be unambiguously determined by curve fitting.

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Photovoltaics, IEEE Journal of  (Volume:3 ,  Issue: 4 )